The Ayoreo are among the most significant ethnic groups in the central and northern part of the Chaco. They are divided into various sub-groups. Most of these groups have become settled. Among them are the Ayoreo-Totobiegosode (People from the land where there are many boars). They were people who roamed through a forest area covering about 28 000 square kilometres. This group was one of the last to come into contact with the white settlers. They succeeded in living in isolation, as long as large tracts of forests, which no longer belonged to them, remained untouched. Moving from one area to the next and following fresh water pools, they hunted and gathered plants, fruit and honey, and during the rainy season raised vegetables. Each family built a round tentlike hut with branches, twigs and clay that offered shelter in rainy weather, but for most of the time, its members lived in the open air gathered around a fire.

The first attempts at settling the Totobiegosode were made during the 1950ies and 1960ies, but it was only in 1979 and later again in 1983 that the American New Tribes Mission, after a violent encounter, succeeded in breaking up the community by persuading about 16 families to move to the compounds of its Missionary Station at Campo Loro. The group refusing to leave the forest consisted of about 70 individuals.